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What colour are you on the inside?

What colour are you on the inside?

Use the list below to see which toxic ingredients may be lurking in your body. If you are using commonly available cosmetics, there is a very good chance you will have some of these toxins building up in your body.

Below is our list of all the cosmetic ingredients and keywords that we are interested in. It will always be a list in progress.

Use this list as a reference when you want to know what something is. It is not an exhaustive list that covers all makeup ingredients.

This page is long. To quickly find a word, press Ctrl F (PC) in your browser. A find box will appear on your screen. Enter your word and press Enter.

Or, click the letter to take you to its corresponding list.

A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R
S T U V W X Y Z

The list focuses on the following :

Generic, common and household names. Where possible, we will try to avoid the multi-syllable scientific names.

More ingredients that are good for your skin and that you should be considering or using.

Good Makeup Ingredients

Good

Less ingredients that are bad or questionable for your skin. Our site follows the precautionary principle.

Bad Makeup Ingredients

Bad

We don't want to bother you too much with bad or nasty makeup ingredients.

Ugly Makeup Ingredients

Ugly

If the ingredient is not listed below and it is a good one - then we have probably missed it. Please let us know by using the contact us form and we will add it.

If you would like to know what something is, please email us. We would be happy to research it for you and add it to the list for our community to benefit from.

We are slowly compiling the list below into 3 categories, the Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Over time, this list will serve as a quick reference for one of the 3 categories that you are only interested in, instead of having to filter through the huge list below.

Click any of the Good / Bad / Ugly icons (just above) to take you there.

If there is only a heading, it means that we are still researching the ingredient and will add the explanation as soon as we can.

Book mark this page so you can quickly refer to it any time you want without having to search the web again.

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MAKEUP INGREDIENTS 0 - 9


1,4-Dioxane

Is used as a stabiliser and solvent and irritates the eyes and respiratory tract and can cause damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidneys.

1,4 Dioxane is a Group 2B carcinogen: possibly carcinogenic to humans because it is a known carcinogen in animals. Under Proposition 65, 1,4 Dioxane is classified in the U.S. state of California to cause cancer.

Direct exposure from accidents has killed people.


MAKEUP INGREDIENTS A

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Allantoin


Acrylamide

Is synthetically produced to make Polyacrylamide.

Occurs naturally in fried starchy foods.

It is a suspected carcinogen and is on the European "very high concern" list.

Cigarette smoking is a major source of Acrylamide.

In addition there are strong concerns that it is an organ system toxin, a skin irritant and a neurotoxin.

There is also concern that it is an environmental toxin.


Alcohols

Alcohols are natural preservatives.

As far as our skins are concerned, alcohols are typically divided into 3 groups : good alcohols, bad alcohols and cosmetic alcohols.

Some of the bad ones are benzyl alcohol, denatured alcohol, ethanol, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, and sd alcohol.

These alcohols are drying, irritating and may be cytotoxic.

Cosmetic commercial grade alcohols are SD (Specially Denatured) : Alcohol 23-A, SD Alcohol 40, and SD Alcohol 40-B.

Good alcohols are known as fatty alcohols. They are cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and cetearyl alcohol.


Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone

A synthetic fragrance.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee says it does not present a safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring agent.

In Europe, it is included on the list of "allergenic" substances.

In Europe, the presence of Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin


Ammonium Alum

Known as Ammonium aluminium sulfate. Man made from aluminium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. Used in and as an antiperspirant.

Antiperspirants constrict and block sweat glands (this is un-natural). Deodourants kill bacteria living off the sweat (the cause of the odour) or mask the odour with scents.

The FDA recommends that people with impaired renal function and children should not use this ingredient.

It is suspected to be a persistent environmental toxin and an organ toxin.

Aluminium in the body is a toxin and is linked to Alzheimer's and breast cancer. There is no scientific evidence linking Ammonium Alum to aluminium increase in the body.

Defenders of Ammonium Alum say that the aluminium molecule in the alum is too large to be absorbed by the skin. Critics say that aluminium is an organ toxin and one should simply stay away from it altogether. 


Ammonium Polyacrylate

A synthetic thickener.

An eye and skin irritant in high concentrations.

The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans.

No other known effects.


Aqua

Water

Only water that is free of toxins, pollutants and microbes is used in the formulation of cosmetics and makeup ingredients.

Also called distilled water, purified water and aqua (used in EU)

Mainly used as a solvent (mixing various ingredients) and as a cleanser.


Arachidyl Alcohol

An organic fatty alcohol preservative.

Mainly acts as a stabiliser - stops oils and liquids from separating and adds a soft feel to the liquid.

It can irritate sensitive skin.

Be cautious if you have dry skin.

May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)


Avobenzone

Also known as Parsol 1789, Eusolex 9020, Escalol 517, INCI Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane.

Used in sunscreen to absorb UVA rays.

May cause eye irritation (itching and redness), mild skin irritation (itching and redness) and may cause respiratory tract irritation if inhaled (coughing, wheezing or shortness of breath)

Avobenzone penetrates the skin in its molecular chemical form and is a free radical generator (oxygen) when processing UVA rays.

This chemical interferes with the process of melanin, which is the body's natural, and far more effective way, of absorbing UVA and converting it to heat.


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Baobab Oil

Virgin Baobab Seed Oil is highly stable and an excellent source of essential and other fatty acids. It includes up to 34% Linoleic Acid (Omega-6) and up to 3% Linolenic Acid (Omega-3). 
Generally, Virgin Baobab Seed Oil is derived using 100% sustainable wild harvesting techniques.
Baobab Seed Oil is especially rich in Vitamin E, Vitamin A and sterols. It is highly emollient, is a noteworthy anti-oxidant, helps increase elasticity and reduces wrinkles and fine lines. 
It is a functional addition to anti-aging and after sun care products. The significant level of fatty acids contributes to the oil's effectiveness when used in conjunction with skin conditions including eczema, psoriasis, rosacea and acne. 
Baobab Seed Oil has more applications including hair care, lip care and nail care.


Beeswax


Bentonite

Is an impure clay formed from weathered volcanic ash and is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate consisting mostly of montmorillonite (see Fullers Earth) There are different types of bentonite, each named after the respective dominant element:

  • Potassium (K)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Calcium (Ca) Fullers Earth (Finely ground Calcium Bentonite)
  • Aluminium (Al)

Montmorillonite is the main constituent of volcanic ash weathering.


Benzyl Alcohol

An organic preservative and / or fragrance.

EU law - 1% maximum concentration

In Europe, it must be indicated in the list of ingredients when concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin

Some studies have shown positive geno-toxicity results.


Benzyl Salicylate

A synthetic fragrance and UV absorber (protects the makeup/cosmetic from being spoiled by sunlight)

Listed in Europe as an allergenic.

In Europe, it must be indicated in the list of ingredients when concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


BHT

Known as Butylated hydroxytoluene.

A synthetic preservative - an antioxidant that prevents product spoilage (rancidity). Also used extensively in food.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established a temporary acceptable daily intake of 0-0.125 mg/kg of body weight.

A free radical (oxygen) suppressor.

Consumption of BHT has claimed links to child hyperactivity and cancer.


Bismuth Oxychloride

Used often in mineral cosmetics and provides a pearly iridescent light reflection due to its alternating layers of bismuth, oxygen and chlorine atoms.

It imparts a "dewy glow" on the skin which many mineral makeup users enjoy.

Adheres well to the skin throughout the day and improves the wear time of mineral makeup products.

If you have a skin condition such as eczema, rosacea, acne, heat sensitivity or general skin sensitivity, it is best to avoid bismuth oxychloride as there are many reported cases that it will further aggravate and increase the sensitivity of your skin condition.


Boron Nitride


Butylparaben

A synthetic preservative.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0.10 mg/kg of body weight for the total sum of Ethyl-, Methyl- and Propyl- parabens.

In Europe, Butylparaben is restricted to 0.4% on its own or 0.8% when mixed with other parabens.

The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans. Parabens can affect your endocrine system as it is considered weakly oestrogenic.

Studies indicate that when it is applied on the skin, it may react with UVB (sunlight), leading to increased skin ageing and DNA damage (Free radical generator).

Do not use a paraben product on broken skin. For people that are allergic to parabens, they can cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rosacea. It is toxic at high concentrations.

Although there is no scientific evidence, parabens are being associated with :

  • breast cancer tumours
  • increasing prevalence of early puberty in girls


Butylphenyl Methylpropional

A synthetic fragrance.

Listed in Europe as an allergenic.

In Europe, it must be indicated in the list of ingredients when concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter

Made from the Shea Tree.

The oil contains about 45-50% oleic acid, 30-41% stearic acid, 5-9% plamitic acid and 4-5% linoleic acid.

One of natures great anti-inflammatory, emollient and humectant products.

No reported side effects and very popular in Natural Skincare Products.



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C13-14 Isoparaffin

An organic compound made of hydrogen and carbon derived from petrochemicals.

Used in cosmetics as a solvent (dissolves ingredient together)

It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.

The cosmetic industry are supposed to used highly refined petroleum.

Unrefined petroleum will include impurities that will cause allergies and contain carcinogens.

Calcium Pantothenate

A synthetic substance made from pantothenic acid, trying to mimic natural vitamin B5.

Camellia Sinensis Extract

Known as Green Tea. Use extensively in cosmetics. Has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and anti-carcinogenic properties. Reduces redness and irritation associated with Rosacea. Works well with sunscreens. Improves skin elasticity. No reported side effects.

International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards has a restriction on the concentration used in fragrances / perfumes.

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Also known as Fractionated Coconut Oil. This is the process of separating the various fatty acids for different purposes. The purpose is to extract the best “part” of the fatty acid for use in cosmetics. It is the ester of fatty acids normally found in coconut oil and glycerin. No reported side effects and very popular in Natural Skincare Products.

Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance directly involved to cause cancer. A carcinogen can be both a natural and synthetic substance. Examples of natural carcinogens are a fungus that grows on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter. Hepatitis B is another.

In some formulas, Formaldehyde is used as a makeup ingredient and is carcinogenic (See Formaldehyde in this list). Do not use any product that contains carcinogenic makeup ingredients.

Cetearyl Alcohol

An organic fatty alcohol preservative. Acts as a stabiliser - stops oils and liquids from separating and reduces foaming. There is no evidence of this alcohol being a skin irritant or sensitiser. Be cautious if you have dry skin. May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)

Cetearyl Glucoside

A natural or synthetic ingredient used as a surfactant and emulsifier. Makes oil and dirt stick to water for easy washing off. There is no evidence of this ingredient being a skin irritant or sensitiser.

Cetyl Alcohol

An organic fatty alcohol preservative derived from coconut oil. Acts as a stabiliser - stops oils and liquids from separating and reduces foaming. Gives the skin a soft appearance and adds lubrication to the formula. There is no evidence of this alcohol being a skin irritant or sensitiser. Be cautious if you have dry skin. May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)

Chemical

Chemical refers to a cosmetic or makeup ingredients structure. Natural ingredients are also chemicals. If you had to buy a truly chemical-free product, the container would be empty and free of air.

The container is also a chemical – so this would also be eliminated. An easy way to remember this is - if you can feel it, see it, smell it, then it is a chemical – for example, pure water is a chemical but electricity is not.

Chromium Chloride

A toxic and has negative affects on the reproductive system for both men and women, stomach problems, abnormal bleeding, and ulcers.

CI77007


CI77491

Red inorganic pigment made from Iron Oxide and used extensively in mineral cosmetics as a colourant.

Also known as Ferric Oxide, Pigment Brown 6, Pigment Brown 7 or Pigment Red 101. 

No known side effects when used as a colourant in mineral cosmetics.


CI77492

Yellow inorganic pigment made from Iron Oxide and used extensively in mineral cosmetics as a colourant.

Also known as Hydrated Ferric Oxide, Pigment Yellow 42 or Pigment Yellow 43. 

No known side effects when used as a colourant in mineral cosmetics.


CI77493

Yellow inorganic pigment made from Iron Oxide and used extensively in mineral cosmetics as a colourant.

No known side effects when used as a colourant in mineral cosmetics.


CI77499

Black inorganic pigment made from Iron Oxide and used extensively in mineral cosmetics as a colourant.

Also known as Black Iron Oxide or Pigment Black 11. 

No known side effects when used as a colourant in mineral cosmetics.


CI77891

Titanium Dioxide.

Click here


Citronellol

A synthetic fragrance.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has issued an acceptable daily intake of up to 0.5 mg/kg of body weight.

It is restricted by the International Fragrance association because of sensitisation concerns.

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


Cocos Nucifera Oil

Coconut oil, an edible oil that enhances the appearance of dry or damaged skin.

It reduces moisture loss by forming a barrier on the skin's surface.

It is a very rare allergenic causing contact dermatitis.

Other than being a rare allergenic, there are no other reported side effects.


Comedogenic

An ingredient or product that will cause pores in the skin to clog.

This results in blackheads or whiteheads.


Concentration

When purchasing cosmetics it is worthwhile to remember that the highest concentration of makeup ingredients are listed first. The ingredients list will be displayed somewhere on the packaging.

If there is no makeup ingredients list on the packaging, don't waste your money - put it back on the shelf - no exceptions.


Corn Powder


Corn Syrup Solids

Corn Syrup Solids are made of dehydrated corn syrup, which is 100% glucose, a type of sugar that adds to the risk of obesity. Corn syrup is also almost always made from GMO corn, and has been linked to diabetes, and cancer.

Cosmetic – noun

1. A powder, lotion, lipstick, rouge, or other preparation for beautifying the face, skin, hair, nails, etc.

2. Cosmetics, superficial measures to make something appear better, more attractive, or more impressive: The budget committee opted for cosmetics instead of a serious urban renewal plan.

(source www.dictionary.com)


Cupric Sulfate

Is a pesticide and fungicide, that is toxic, and can cause gastrointestinal issues, anemia, and even death at high doses. It is also genotoxic, meaning it can cause the cells to mutate due to genetic damage.

Cyclomethicone


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Dl-alpha-tocopherol Acetate

A synthetic kind of Vitamin E. Not only is the synthetic kind only 12% as effective as natural Vitamin E, it is often created as a byproduct of  a petrochemical dependent manufacturing process. It also has been associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, DNA damage, and other adverse effects.

Dibutyl Phthalate

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer. It is also used as an additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polish.

Banned in the European Union in all cosmetics.

Restricted in the European Union for use in children's toys since 1999.

Added to the California Proposition 65 (1986) list of suspected teratogens in November 2006.

Banned in the USA in children's toys and childcare articles, in concentrations of 1000 ppm or greater.

It is a suspected endocrine disruptor.

A study on CDC data revealed that American men with abdominal obesity or insulin resistance (a precursor to diabetes) were more likely to have high levels of DEHP and DBP metabolites in their urine than men without those problems.


Dimethicone

A silicone polymer used to slow moisture loss and soothes the skin from irritations.

It also soothes contact dermatitis, reduces redness caused by Rosacea and acts an an anti-inflammatory.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake level of 0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight.

There are no reported side effects when used on the skin.


Dimethiconol

A synthetic silicone used as a "Skin Conditioning Agent".

Adds lubrication and creates a barrier over your skin to reduce loss of moisture.

There is no evidence that it causes allergenic reactions or any other safety issues.

It is claimed that the quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans.


Disodium EDTA

A synthetic preservative - protects the product from spoiling, protects the fragrance and keeps the clarity (or appearance) of the liquid.

In low doses, some studies show this ingredient to be mildly cytotoxic (affects your cells) and geno-toxic (affects the DNA thereby making the cell mutagenic or cancergenic)

Studies of large doses (orally) showed reproductive and developmental effects.

It is claimed that the quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans.

Because EDTA is used so extensively, it has become an environmental polluter or better known as a Persistent Organic Polluter - POP.

It is long range (travels the earth) and bio-accumulative (absorbed faster into your body than what your body can get rid of it).

It is resistant to environmental degradation.

Examples of POP's are Agent Orange, DDT and Chlordane.

POP's can cause death and illnesses.

They disrupt the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems.

They cause neuro-behavioural disorders; and cancers possibly including breast cancer.

Typical POP exposure if from your food or environment.


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Emulsion Stabiliser

Ingredients that help to keep an emulsion from separating into its oil and liquid components.


Emollient

Ingredients that act as lubricants on the skin surface.

They give the skin a soft and smooth appearance.


Epidemiology

Studies the causes, distribution and control of disease in populations.

For example, studying human exposures or life styles and then attempt to determine if there is a correlation between the exposure and a particular health affect.


Essential Oil

A concentrated liquid containing volatile aroma (fragrance or scent) compounds from plants.


Ester

An organic compound formed by the reaction of an acid with an alcohol.


Ethylparaben

A synthetic preservative.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0.10 mg/kg of body weight for the total sum of Ethyl-, Methyl- and Propyl- parabens.

In Europe, Ethylparaben is restricted to 0.4% on its own or 0.8% when mixed with other parabens.

The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans. Parabens can affect your endocrine system as it is considered weakly oestrogenic.

Studies indicate that when it is applied on the skin, it may react with UVB (sunlight), leading to increased skin ageing and DNA damage (Free radical generator).

Do not use a paraben product on broken skin. For people that are allergic to parabens, they can cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rosacea. It is toxic at high concentrations.

Although there is no evidence, parabens are being associated with :

  • breast cancer tumours
  • increasing prevalence of early puberty in girls


Exfoliant

Ingredients that help to (or do) remove dead skin cells from the surface of the skin.


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Fatty Acid

A natural organic compound that consists of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.

They are then attached to a chain of carbon (and hydrogen) atoms.

When these connections are single bonds, you get a “saturated” fat.

When these connections are double bonds, you get an “unsaturated” fat.

The number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the chain is what determines the qualities of that particular fatty acid.

Animal and vegetable fats are made up of various combinations of fatty acids (in sets of three) connected to a glycerol molecule, making them triglycerides.

Fibroin


Flavours, Natural and Artificial

Can include a row of different chemicals, often derived from inorganic sources, and are harmful to health, adding to the contributions for illnesses in the whole body, including different types of cancers.

Ferrous Sulfate

A synthetic from of iron, and can cause constipation, nausea, allergic reactions, and gastrointestinal issues.

Formaldehyde

An organic compound that was used as a disinfectant and preserver for biological specimens. It is a known carcinogen and is mostly banned in cosmetic products. Formaldehyde is also detected in tobacco smoke and works well in cosmetic products to stop the growth of harmful bacteria.

People that are allergic to Formaldehyde in cosmetics (or other skin contact products) will display dermatitis (inflammation or rash on the skin). Dermatitis and Eczema are often classified together.

Free Radicals

On a molecular level, any atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron in its outer shell. This unpaired electron makes them highly reactive.

As needed by the body, free radicals are an essential part of life.

Oxidative free radicals are involved with cell signalling and intracellular killing of bacteria.

Normally produced oxidative free radicals are a result of a "failed" energy transfer process between cells that results in a superoxide instead of water.

Enzymes and antioxidants such as Vitamin A, C and E provide the body with a number of effective ways to control excess free radicals.

Problems start when the production of free radicals exceeds the neutralisation process. This causes indirect protein, lipid and DNA damage.

Protein, lipid and DNA damage results in, amongst others, cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Sickle Cell Disease, chronic fatigue.

For example, excessive free radicals created by UV radiation (sunlight - UVA/UVB/UVC) can cause indirect DNA damage. Indirect DNA damage is a cause of Malignant Melanoma.

Fullers Earth

Calcium montmorillonite (see Bentonite) is a naturally occurring phyllosilicate and is composed mainly of alumina, silica, iron oxides, lime, magnesia, and water. It is used as a mask and deep cleans skin, treats acne and has been used for centuries to remove impurities from the skin.

It is dermatologically well-tolerated. Mixed with a little water it can be made into a natural clay face mask/pack to remove oils, blackheads and impurities, unclog pores and replace lost moisture.

It stimulates circulation and produces a lightening effect on the outer layer of the skin. It is especially beneficial for blemished, dull and stressed skin.

It outperforms any material to help clean oily and acne-prone skin and comes highly recommended to those with acne problems, blemishes, spotting, and people prone to oily skin.

It can be used in Sulphur acne treatment regimes. Mix two tablespoons of Fuller's earth with one egg white and apply as a mask every day.

It can also be used to treat nappy rash, external wounds, leg ulcers, insect bites and as an intestinal detoxifier.


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Genotoxicity

This is the action of a harmful affect on a cell's genetic integrity.

Genotoxic ingredients interact with a cell's DNA.

This harmful interaction potentially makes the cell mutagenic or cancergenic.

Genotoxins can be passed down.

For example, a genotoxin that affects affects an adults sperm and / or eggs can pass the harmful genetic changes down to their descendants who have never been exposed to this genotoxin.


Geraniol

A synthetic or natural fragrance.

It is restricted by the International Fragrance association because of sensitisation concerns.

Listed in Europe as an allergenic.

In Europe, it must be indicated in the list of ingredients when concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


Glycerin

Known as Glycerol.
A synthetic or natural sugar alcohol that draws moisture from the air thereby increasing the water content in the top layers of the skin.
It is good for sensitive skins (also used in Glycerin soap)
Pure Glycerin is an effective treatment for calluses, cuts, rashes, psoriasis, burns, bites and bedsores.
There are no reported side effects


Glycerin (Organic Vegetable)

As an emollient, lubricant and super humectant, Organic Vegetable Glycerin is well suited for a wide range of moisturisation applications that include skin, hair, nail and lip care. 
It restores elasticity to ageing and damaged skin. It is non-irritating, soothing and is heralded for its ability to moisturise dry and cracked skin. 
Organic Vegetable Glycerin is non-comedogenic and is an ideal choice for inclusion in formulations intended for oily and acne-prone skin. 
It's humectant properties are well suited for use in hair care products intended to restore health to dry, brittle and lifeless hair. 
Vegetable Glycerin's non-irritating and anti-bacterial properties make it an exceptional ingredient within formulations intended for skin abrasions, wounds, burns, eczema and rashes. 
Vegetable Glycerin is a natural, alcohol-free solvent that can be used in the preparation of botanical extracts.
Organic vegetable glycerin is perfectly suited for moisturisers, hair care, lip care, dental hygiene and nail care.


Gluten

Protein derived from wheat and other cereal grains.


GRAS

An acronym for Generally Recognized As Safe.

Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.


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Hexyl Cinnamal

Known as Hexyl cinnamaldehyde.

A synthetic or natural fragrance.

Class B allergen according to DIMDI classification.

An irritant in high concentrations.

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


Humectant

Ingredients that increase the water content of the top layers of the skin.

This is done by drawing moisture from the surrounding air.


Hydrocarbon

Organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.


Hydrolysed Wheat Protein

A wheat protein.

Used as a skin conditioner.

Adds lubrication and creates a barrier over your skin to reduce loss of moisture.

Contains gluten.

Wheat protein causes allergic contact dermatitis in some people.


Hydroquinone

A skin whitening agent in higher concentrations (1% to 5%) or as an antioxidant in small concentrations (0.1%)

At higher concentrations, it decreases the formation of melanin.

  • Used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, chloasma, and Melasma.
  • Not to be used on any skin that is damaged, sunburnt, irritated and before sun exposure.
  • It is a known human toxin and carcinogenic.

At lower concentrations, it is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.


Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde

A synthetic fragrance.

It is restricted in cosmetics because of sensitisation.

In Europe is included on the list of "allergenic" substances.

In Europe, the presence of Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds:

  • 0.001% in leave-on the skin products
  • 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin


Hypo-allergenic


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Illite


Iron Oxide


Isobutylparaben

A synthetic preservative.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0.10 mg/kg of body weight for the total sum of Ethyl-, Methyl- and Propyl- parabens.

In Europe, Isobutylparaben is restricted to 0.4% on its own or 0.8% when mixed with other parabens.

The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans. Parabens can affect your endocrine system as it is considered weakly oestrogenic.

Studies indicate that when it is applied on the skin, it may react with UVB (sunlight), leading to increased skin ageing and DNA damage (Free radical generator).

Do not use a paraben product on broken skin. For people that are allergic to parabens, they can cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rosacea. It is toxic at high concentrations.

Although there is no evidence, parabens are being associated with :

  • breast cancer tumours
  • increasing prevalence of early puberty in girls


Isohexadecane

An organic compound made of hydrogen and carbon derived from petrochemicals.

Used in cosmetics as a solvent (dissolves makeup ingredients together) to create a rich and non-greasy cosmetic texture.

It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.

The cosmetic industry are supposed to used highly refined petroleum to create these ingredients.

Unrefined petroleum will include impurities that will cause allergies and contain carcinogens.

There are no reported side effects when used on the skin.

There is some concern that it is an environmental toxin and that it is bio-accumulative and / or persistent.


Isopropyl Isostearate

A synthetic ingredient made from Isopropyl alcohol and stearic acid.

Acts as a lubricant in the cosmetic formula, giving the skin a soft and smooth appearance.

There may be a very mild skin irritation in rare cases.

No other reported side effects.

May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)


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MAKEUP INGREDIENTS K

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Kaolin or White Clay


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Lanolin


Laureth-7

A mixture of ethylene oxide and lauryl alcohol - a process called ethoxylation.

Makes oil and dirt stick to water for easy washing off.

A by-product of ethoxylation is 1,4-dioxane - a carcinogenic toxin.

1,4-dioxane can be removed by purification - this purification process is not mentioned on the label.

For this reason, it may contain 1,4-dioxane.

Be cautious if you have dry skin.


Limonene

A synthetic or natural fragrance.

A skin and respiratory irritant in high concentrations.

No evidence for carcinogenicity or toxicity in humans.

There is evidence of dermatitis for those that are sensitive to Limonene.

If you have an allergy to perfumes, you should avoid this.


Lipids

Fat or fat-like substances found in the cells of plants and animals.

Fats, waxes, oils and related compounds are known as lipids.


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Magnesium Myristate

Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide a.k.a. Talc

Is a milled mineral, mainly from soapstone (steatite), refined and processed for safe and beneficial use in mineral based cosmetics. It is non-irritating to the skin. Traditionally used in makeup ingredients. It is presently not very popular because of health concerns due to the small asbestos-like fibres they contain. Today, cosmetic-grade talc does not contain asbestos and commonly used in makeup ingredients. A few case-controlled epidemiology studies in the 1990’s reported small increases in ovarian cancer among women who used talc in the perineal (genital) area. Since 2007, the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) has, so far, said that the use of talc-based body powder is "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans"

Make up or Makeup – noun

  • Facial cosmetics, as eye shadow or lipstick.
  • Cosmetics used on other parts of the body, as to cover birthmarks.
  • The application of cosmetics.
  • The ensemble or effect created by such application: Her make up was subtle but very effective.
  • The total ensemble of cosmetics, wigs, costumes, etc., used by an actor or other performer.

(source www.dictionary.com)

Manganese Sulfate

Is made “from the reaction between manganese oxide and sulfuric acid” and is often is used in paints and varnishes, fertilizers and fungicides, and ceramic, besides medicines  (manganese itself is a mineral).

Methyl Methacrylate

An organic compound that is a monomer. Used in nail polish, eye lenses, bone cement, dental fillers and dermal fillers. It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry. It is an immunity toxin, a respiratoty toxin, a neuro-toxin and a skin irritant. It is banned in Canada and banned in fragrances. See Article 5 for a story on this makeup ingredient.

Methylparaben

A synthetic preservative. The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0.10 mg/kg of body weight for the total sum of Ethyl-, Methyl- and Propyl- parabens. In Europe, Methylparaben is restricted to 0.4% on its own or 0.8% when mixed with other parabens. The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans.

Parabens can affect your endocrine system as it is considered weakly oestrogenic. Studies indicate that when it is applied on the skin, it may react with UVB (sunlight), leading to increased skin ageing and DNA damage (Free radical generator). Do not use a paraben product on broken skin.

For people that are allergic to parabens, they can cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rosacea. It is toxic at high concentrations.

Although there is no evidence, parabens are being associated with :

  • breast cancer tumours
  • increasing prevalence of early puberty in girls

Methylparaben is also an ingredient of grapefruit seed extract (natural preservative)

Mica

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Mica with Methicon

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Mineral Oil

A petroleum based product widely used in cosmetics. It is an effective occlusive agent that magnifies the pore-clogging potential of comedogenic ingredients by trapping them in pores. Even when using cosmetic grade mineral oil, use caution when it is included in cosmetics that contains pore-clogging ingredients, especially when used on skin that is prone to pore-clogging. This pore clogging effect makes it on the the bad makeup ingredients.

Monomer

A molecule that can chemically bind to form a polymer. Glucose is an example of a natural monomer. By chemically binding this organic molecule, you can create synthetic polymers, for example, PVC Plastic.

Myristyl alcohol

An organic fatty alcohol preservative. Mainly acts as a stabiliser - stops oils and liquids from separating and adds a soft feel to the liquid. It can irritate sensitive skin. Be cautious if you have dry skin. May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)


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Nanomaterials - Metal Oxides and Other Materials

Metal-oxide nano-materials can have an electron-transfer effect when they come into contact with human cells that contain electronically active molecules. These oxidation-reduction reactions have the potential to generate oxygen free radicals in the body. More free radicals than what the body can neutralise can make Metal Oxide Nanomaterials (commonly used in Natural Mineral Makeup Ingredients) a bad cosmetic ingredient. These free radicals are highly reactive oxygen molecules that damage cells, triggering acute inflammation in the lungs of exposed humans and animals.

  • A course particle size is less than 10 000nm (or 10 microns)
  • A fine particle size is less than 2 500nm (or 2.5 microns)
  • An ultra-fine or nano-particles or nano-material is between 1 and 100nm (or 0.001 and 0.1 microns)
  • A particle size of 70nm can penetrate the alveolar surface of the lung.
  • A particle size of 50nm can penetrate the cells of the body.
  • A particle size of 30nm can penetrate the central nervous system.

Particle sizes of 100nm and larger are generally considered safe to use.

Nanometer

A metric unit of measure (nm). One nanometer (or nanometre) is equal to 1 billionth of a meter or 0.000000001 meters. One nanometer is equal to 0.001 micrometers (or microns). As a comparison, approximately 25.4 million nanometres equal one inch.

Natural

Natural refers to the ingredient’s source. By this definition, a cosmetic ingredient cannot be natural (see Chemicals)

Neurotoxin

These are substances that interfere (or inhibit) with the electrical activities of nerves. This interference prevents them from functioning. Examples of Neurotoxins are lead, aluminium, mercury, arsenic, ammonia, n-Hexane (a low cost cleaner – cheaper than alcohol), Nitric Oxide and ethanol. It is also found in the skin of puffer fish, rattlesnake, black widow spider, etc. Death from Neurotoxins can be within minutes.

Niacinamide

A synthetic form of vitamin B3 used that enhances the appearance of dry or damaged skin. It reduces reduces flaking and restores suppleness. An anti-inflammatory and used in acne treatments. It is toxic in high doses (+3grams per day). There are no reported side effects when used on the skin. When exposed to UV, it can suppress melanin from reaching the skin thereby limiting age spots, freckles, and hyper-pigmentation. Its list of other side effects includes a few dozen of conditions, including liver failure.


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Occlusive

Ingredients that slow the loss of water from the skin.

This is done by forming a barrier on the skin's surface.


Organic Compound

A compound that contains hydrogen and carbon. It usually contains other elements such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen.

A hydrocarbon.


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Panthenol

A derivative of vitamin B5, and acts as a lubricant, giving the skin a soft and smooth appearance.

It improves skin hydration and reduces itching and inflammation.

It speeds up healing of epidermal wounds.

In very high concentrations, it can be a skin irritant.

It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.


Palmitic Acid

A fatty acid used to "soften" (emollient and lubricant) and add a pearly effect to some cosmetic products.

There is no evidence to suggest that this ingredient is a hazard to the public at current levels used in cosmetics.

May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)


Parfum

Known as perfume.

A mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents.

Parfums / perfumes can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or animal sources.

Due to the many "origins" of parfum, safety of these ingredients ranges from GRAS (Generally Recognised as safe) to carcinogenic to allergenic to oestrogenic.

They can cause asthmatic reactions, headaches, skin reactions, nausea, respiratory problems, cancer.

Due to its extensive global use, perfumes are found in breast milk, human fat and natural water deposits.

In the US, perfumes are regulated (by the FDA) as an ingredient.

  • Due to the need for protection of trade secrets, companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health.

In Europe, as from 11 March 2005, 26 recognized fragrances have been categorised as allergens. (Many old perfumes had to be reformulated to adhere to these new regulations)

This is evidence that the cosmetic industry have the capability to reformulate when they have to.


PEG-100 Stearate

PEG Stearates are derived from stearic acid, a naturally occurring fatty acid.

Makes oil and dirt stick to water for easy washing off.

It is an irritant and sensitiser at high concentrations (25% and more)

Do not use on injured or damaged (broken) skin as there is a risk of organ toxicity.

All PEGs (including PEG 100 Stearate) can contain harmful impurities such as 1,4-dioxane (a known carcinogen), Ethylene Oxide (increases the risk of uterine and breast cancers, leukaemia and brain cancer), PAH's (increases the risk of breast cancer), lead, iron and arsenic.

May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)


Pesticides

Substances or ingredients that destroy or repel pests.

Pesticides can also minimise the effects of pests.

In the USA, pesticides that are used in consumer products, including cosmetics, must first be registered and approved by the EPA.


Petroleum


Phenoxyethanol

A synthetic preservative.

This ingredient is used extensively in cosmetic products and is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.

Tests with high doses noted increased weights of some organs in the body.

According to a warning by the FDA of 2008 "Phenoxyethanol is a preservative that is primarily used in cosmetics and medications.”

”It also can depress the central nervous system and may cause vomiting and diarrhoea, which can lead to dehydration in infants"

See Article 4 for a story on this cosmetic ingredient.


Phenyl Trimethicone


Pigment


Polyacrylamide

A synthetic ingredient, made from Acrylamide, that keeps cosmetics on the skin in wet, damp and moist conditions.

Considered a moderate hazard ingredient.

The biggest concern is the presence of Acrylamide left over from the manufacturing process.

Acrylamide is a known neurotoxin and organ system toxin.

In the presence of heat and light, there are also concerns that Polyacrylamide breaks down (de-polymerises) to form Acrylamide.

There are also concerns that it is an environmental toxin and persistent and/ or bio-accumulative.


Polydimethylsiloxane

A synthetic silicone used as a "Skin Protectant".

Sometimes called a dimethicone.

Creates a barrier over your skin to reduce loss of moisture and fills in fine lines giving the skin a "plump" look.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee established an acceptable daily intake level of 0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight.

There is no evidence that it causes allergenic reactions.

It is claimed that the quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans.

There are some concerns when used internally, such as breast implants. It is now used less because of this concern.


Polymer

A large molecule made up of additional molecular structural units.

These structural units are Monomers that have been polymerised

Polymerisation is the process of adding more molecules to create another substance.

This process, for example, can include the removal of water, alcohol, etc. This example would be known as Condensation Polymerisation.


Polysiloxane


Preservatives

Are makeup ingredients that prevent or retard bacterial growth.

This action protects cosmetic products from spoilage.


Proposition 65

Proposition 65 is a California citizens initiative that was enacted as "The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986."

It requires the State to publish a list of chemicals known to the state of California to cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm.

Businesses are then required to notify Californians about these chemicals if they are present in the products they purchase, in their homes or workplaces, or that are released into the environment.


Propylparaben

A synthetic preservative.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0.10 mg/kg of body weight for the total sum of Ethyl-, Methyl- and Propyl- parabens.

In Europe, Butylparaben is restricted to 0.4% on its own or 0.8% when mixed with other parabens.

The quantities used in cosmetics are considered safe for humans. Parabens can affect your endocrine system as it is considered weakly oestrogenic.

Studies indicate that when it is applied on the skin, it may react with UVB (sunlight), leading to increased skin ageing and DNA damage (Free radical generator).

Do not use a paraben product on broken skin. For people that are allergic to parabens, they can cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rosacea. It is toxic at high concentrations.

Although there is no evidence, parabens are being associated with :

  • breast cancer tumours
  • increasing prevalence of early puberty in girls

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Rice powder


RIPT

RIPT = Repeat Insult Patch Test.

This test requires a small amount of product to be applied to the skin.

It is then monitored for its effect.

After a predetermined time period, the skin is observed, graded, and tested again.


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Sebum

A thick oily substance, secreted by the sebaceous glands of the skin, that consists of fat, keratin and cellular debris. It is used to waterproof and lubricate the skin. 12% of sebum consists of squalene. Too much sebum is associated with acne.


Sericin


Sericite Mica - a.k.a. Mica

Is a natural powdered mica (aluminium potassium silicate). Its properties are similar to white mica with a fine grain size and silky shine. Sericite mica is used mainly as a talc substitute in mineral makeup recipes.

Sericite mica is generally avilable is three different types :

  • untreated sericite mica
  • treated sericite mica with silicones
  • treated sericite mica with magnesium myristate.

Sericite Mica – Untreated

Is a colourless mica powder that increases the translucency of mineral cosmetics.

It reflects light but tends to be low lustre. Because of its low coverage, it is mostly suitable for light to medium foundations and eye shadows.

It will not clog your pores.

It does not have good oil absorption characteristics. For this reason, people with oily skin might find that their colour turns ashy during the day (particularly darker skinned women with oily skin)


Sericite Mica – Treated (with Carnauba Wax)

Has all the characteristics of Sericite Mica Treated with Magnesium Myristate (see below) but with the added benefits of being water resistant and will hold the colour throughout the day.


Sericite Mica - Treated (with Dimethicone) a.k.a. Mica with Methicon

May also be known as dimethicone mica or methicon mica.

This "treated" mica is coated with dimethicone to increase the water resistance, skin adhesion and makes the powder more free flowing.

The treated mica has a shinier characteristic which results in more reflected light. By doing so, it can reduce fine lines.

For skin with wider and deeper lines, it will exaggerate the lines so it is not recommended for older and mature skin.

Methicon mica absorbs oil and keeps the makeup colour throughout the day. This makes it a good choice for people with oily or dark skin.


Sericite Mica – Treated (with L-Lysine)


Sericite Mica – Treated (with Magnesium Myristate)

With the addition of this fatty acid, this treated mica provides lubrication and emolliency to the skin.

It has a silky feel, resists water and helps with adhesion.

This mica does not absorb oil very well (dimethicone mica would be a better choice) but the moisturising attribute makes it suitable for dry skin.

Because of its weak oil absorption properties, it is not ideal for oily or dark skin as it will lose colour during the day.


Sericite Mica - Treated (with Perfluoroalcohol Phosphate)

Also known as PF treated mica.

In addition to all the characteristics of Sericite Mica treated with Magnesium Myristate, it is probably the most user friendly of all the treated mica's.

It is water resistant, oil resistant, sebum resistant and sweat resistant.

It will also keep the mineral colours alive and vibrant throughout your day.


Silica

Is a very smooth, silky, translucent, fine white powder used in many cosmetics. Silicones are a widely used group of oils and compounds derived from the mineral silica.

There is no known toxicity when used externally. Cosmetic silica mineral has been successfully used in hypo-allergenic and allergy tested formulations. Silica is the seventh most prevalent element in the human tissue.

Tests have found that the mineral is essential in collagen production and calcium absorption.


Silicone


Silk Powder


Simmondsia Chinensis


Skin Bleaching or Whitening

Ingredients that bleach or lighten skin by suppressing melanin (pigment) formation within skin cells.


Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate

Known as Vitamin C and works as an antioxidant to reduce product spoilage due to oxidation (reacting with oxygen)

It is an irritant and sensitiser in high concentrations.

The Joint FAO/WHO Committee has established an acceptable daily intake of 0-15 mg/kg of body weight.

Concentrations should be 5% in most formulas, and up to 0.1% in sunscreens.


Sodium Chloride

Table salt. Used with other makeup ingredients to thicken the water portion of the product. There is no evidence to suggest that this ingredient is a hazard to the public at current levels used in food and cosmetics.

Sodium molybdate

A chemical form of sodium, and it has shown to have negative effects on fertility in animals.

Sodium Selenite

A toxic ingredient produced as a by-product of copper metal refining. Yet, it is often labelled as a “nutrient.” The Environmental Protection Agency has classified it as dangerous. 

Solvent

Normally a liquid that is used to dissolve other substances.

Squalane

Natural component of human sebum. It is a mixture of lipids produced by glands in the skin. Squalane is made by hydrogenating Squalene. At 100% concentrations, it is non irritating to the skin or eyes. Not a dermal irritant or sensitiser. No reported side effects and very popular in Natural Skincare Products.

Squalene

Natural component of human sebum. It is a mixture of lipids produced by glands in the skin. At 100% concentrations, it is non irritating to the skin or eyes. Not a dermal irritant or sensitiser. No reported side effects and very popular in Natural Skincare Products.

Stearic Acid

A fatty acid used to "soften" (emollient and lubricant) and add a pearly effect to some cosmetic products. There is no evidence to suggest that this ingredient is a hazard to the public at current levels used in cosmetics. May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)

Stearyl Alcohol

An organic fatty alcohol preservative derived from coconut oil. Acts as a stabiliser - stops oils and liquids from separating and reduces foaming. Gives the skin a soft appearance and adds lubrication to the formula. There is no evidence of this alcohol being a skin irritant or sensitiser. Be cautious if you have dry skin. May be derived from animal sources - animal by-products. (Does not have to be mentioned on the label)

Sucrose Polycottonseedate

A fatty acid that acts as a lubricant and gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry. No reported side effects.

Sunscreen

Ingredients that are applied to the skin to absorb, to reflect, or to scatter UV rays.

Surfactant

An ingredient that helps two liquids (that normally do not mix together) to become dissolved or dispersed in one another. Sometimes a surfactant is also called a surface active agent.

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Talc

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Titanium Dioxide

Also known as Pigment White 6 or CI 77891.

Used in paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and food colouring. 

It is one of the whitest materials on earth and when used in cosmetics and skin care products, titanium dioxide acts as a pigment, sunscreen and a thickener.

It is used extensively in sun block products because it protects the skin from ultra-violet light.

Important - There is concern that nano sized titanium dioxide penetrates the body and reaches internal organs. Studies have found that titanium dioxide nano-particles cause inflammatory response and genetic damage in mice.


Tocopherol

Pure vitamin E, oil soluble commonly available anti-oxidant.

A natural, heat stable antioxidant that protects food and cosmetic products from oxidation. For cosmetics this Vitamin E provides better antioxidant properties for oils/lipids, acting as an in-vitro antioxidant.

See tocopheryl acetate for more data.


Tocopheryl Acetate

Known as vitamin E. Consists in a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. There are many different forms of vitamin E. This is a synthetic version.

Used to enhance the appearance of dry or damaged skin. Reduces flaking and restores suppleness.

Very rarely, it can be a skin sensitiser that can cause itching, burning, scaling, hives and blistering of skin.

It is considered a moderate hazard with some people developing contact dermatitis.

It is considered safe to use by the cosmetic industry.

High dose tests have resulted in animal tumours.

There is also risk of contamination by Hydroquinone which is a known toxin and carcinogenic.

Commonly used in mainstream cosmetics and natural products as an antioxidant, gene expresser (repair of wounds and regeneration of the extracellular tissue), for neurological functions and also for lipid protection that prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Tocopherol Natural

Vitamin E Linoleate is an all natural product. For a less expensive alternative use the Vitamin E Acetate.

Long lasting, improves skin resiliency by locking in moisture for up to 16 hours. Also acts as a natural preservative.

See tocopheryl acetate for more data.


Toluene

Toluene is a common solvent. It is sometimes also used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties; however, inhaling toluene has potential to cause severe neurological harm.

Inhaling high levels of toluene quickly can cause light-headedness, nausea, or sleepiness. It can also cause unconsciousness, and even death.

Added to the California Proposition 65 (1986) list of cancer causing and birth defect substances.

Banned in the European Union in all makeup ingredients.

Not banned in the USA.

Cosmetic companies use Toluene in nail polish and lipstick, as it acts as a good “bonding agent” to the skin.


Toxic Trio

Toluene - a neurotoxin

Formaldehyde - a known carcinogen

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) - a reproductive toxin and hormone disruptor

Avoid these ingredients whenever possible, especially if you are pregnant. Many nail polishes contain the Toxic Trio. To avoid them, look for nail polishes that are water-based and/or for labels that say ‘three-free’.


Triclosan

Used in common household products such as soaps, mouthwashes, dish detergents, toothpastes, deodorants and hand sanitizers.

It is a chlorinated aromatic compound with antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiviral properties.

It is also a component in some pesticides, mattresses and insulations (insulations that are installed under various types of flooring, laminate, wood and carpeting for the purpose of slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria, fungi and mildew)

A 2010 study found that children who had higher exposure to triclosan had more hay fever and other studies have linked triclosan to allergic contact dermatitis in some individuals.

Triclosan reacts with the free chlorine in tap water to produce compounds like 2,4-dichlorophenol. Most of these compounds convert into dioxins upon exposure to UV radiation (from the sun or other sources).

Some dioxins are extremely toxic and are very potent endocrine disruptors  even in very small doses. Their chemical stability makes elimination from the body a very slow process. This means that they can bio-accumulate to dangerous levels and persist in the environment for a long time.

Triclosan is toxic to aquatic bacteria. It inhibits photosynthesis in diatom (a common phytoplankton) algae which is responsible for a large part of the photosynthesis on Earth.


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UVA

Can damage collagen fibres which accelerates ageing of the skin. It can also destroy vitamin A which may cause further damage. Previously, UVA was considered not harmful or less harmful.

Today it is known to contribute to skin cancer via indirect DNA damage (free radicals and reactive oxygen species). It penetrates deeply, but it does not cause sunburn.

UVA is a Group 1 carcinogen - the highest level designation for a carcinogen.

UV exposure can prevent programmed cell death (Apoptosis) allowing cells to continue to divide and possibly become cancerous.

UVA is not included in the SPF factor rating (because it does not redden the skin)

Makeup Ingredients that contain Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide, offer UVA protection.

Prolonged exposure to UVC may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye, and immune system.


UVB

Can damage collagen fibres which accelerates ageing of the skin. It can also destroy vitamin A which may cause further damage.

UVB is a Group 1 carcinogen - the highest level designation for a carcinogen.

UV exposure can prevent programmed cell death (Apoptosis) allowing cells to continue to divide and possibly become cancerous.

Destroys Vitamin A (prolonged exposure) and is associated with direct DNA damage causing skin cancers.

UVB exposure induces the production of vitamin D in the skin.

UVB is included in the SPF factor rating.

Prolonged exposure to UVC may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye, and immune system.


UVC

Can damage collagen fibres which accelerates ageing of the skin. It can also destroy vitamin A which may cause further damage.

UVC is a Group 1 carcinogen - the highest level designation for a carcinogen.

UV exposure can prevent programmed cell death (Apoptosis) allowing cells to continue to divide and possibly become cancerous.

UVC is not included in the SPF factor rating as it is fully absorbed by the atmosphere.

UVC is artificially created by lamps, for example, pond sterilisation lamps.

UVC causes direct DNA damage when exposed to your skin.

Makeup ingredients that contain Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide, offer UVC protection.

Prolonged exposure to UVC may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye, and immune system.

It can also cause adverse cellular effects that can be mutagenic or carcinogenic.


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Vitamins, Synthetic

While our bodies, especially when sick, do require a lot of vitamins, there is a huge difference between natural vitamins derived from food or natural sources, versus synthetic vitamins. Unfortunately, commercialized “health” foods and supplements are almost always synthetic, and are manufactured with chemicals. Generally speaking, when a new study comes out that claims that some vitamin is toxic at high levels, it is because only the synthetic version of it has been studied, yet it gets lumped together with natural vitamins.

Synthetics do not get absorbed by the body in the same way as natural vitamins, because they have been “isolated” – they are separated from the entire vitamin complex and trace minerals and enzymes. What a synthetic vitamin is lacking, the body tries to make up for by itself, and depletes its existing nutrients in the process.

Vitamin A Palmitate

A synthetic form of vitamin A, which like many others above can cause liver damage and stomach issues.

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Zinc Oxide

The metal zinc, achieved through the process of oxidization. For the cosmetics industry, it is synthesised and purified via distillation to pharmaceutical (or cosmetic) grade Zinc Oxide. Occurs naturally as the mineral zincite. Zinc based makeup offers a compatible formula for people suffering from skin conditions such as rosacea, irritated skin and redness. Zinc oxide is FDA approved as a skin protectant and has excellent natural sunscreen characteristics. It provides sunscreen properties to protect delicate facial skin from the sun’s damaging rays.

Mineral makeup brands that claim to have a SPF factor of 15 will often use zinc oxide as the active sunscreen ingredient. Zinc Oxide also acts as an anti-inflammatory and draws impurities from the skin without removing natural oils.

Zinc Sulfate

An organic form of zinc, and can be toxic to cells, as well as dangerous to the environment.


Where to next?

The Makeup Ingredients is an ever growing list. Cosmetic chemists continually research raw materials and methods to firstly, optimise costs, and secondly, deliver high value cosmetic performance.

While this is all well and good, there is no defined line between delivering these 2 factors and :

  • doing it in a sustainable way that is caring to the environment
  • long term effects of chemical build-up derived from makeup ingredients

Until this line is defined, your daily makeup ingredients are probably contributing to the toxification and destruction of your world as well as poisoning your body to the point of serious sickness or early death.

Enjoy your life free from guilt of knowing that when you leave this wonderful world, you will leave it better than when you arrived ... not worse.

You can make this difference, no matter how small it may be, by simply learning about your makeup ingredients.

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